Battery Introduction

Alkaline batteries are a type of primary battery dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2).

A zinc-carbon battery is a dry cell battery packaged in a zinc can that serves as both a container and negative terminal. The positive terminal is a carbon rod surrounded by a mixture of manganese dioxide and carbon powder. In “general purpose” batteries the electrolyte used is a paste of ammonium chloride (possibly with some zinc chloride) dissolved in water. “Heavy Duty” or “Super Heavy Duty” types use a paste primarily composed of zinc chloride.

A nickel-metal hydride battery abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH is a type of rechargeable battery. Its chemical reactions are somewhat similar to the nickel-cadmium cell (NiCd). NiMH uses positive electrodes of nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), like the NiCd, but the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium, being, in essence, a practical application of nickel-hydrogen battery chemistry. A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent size NiCd, and its energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell.

A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a member of a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in an anon-rechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the consistent components of a lithium-ion cell.

Lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated variously as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology in a pouch format. Unlike cylindrical and prismatic cells, LiPos come in a soft package or pouch, which makes them lighter but also lack rigidity.


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